By Leonardo da Vinci

Описание: В 1966 году в Национальной библиотеке в Мадриде были обнаружены два манускрипта, написанные Леонардо. Когда-то они не были учтены при каталогизации, и об их существовании не было известно. Этим двум манускриптам дали условные названия «Мадридский кодекс I» и «Мадридский кодекс II».
«Мадридский кодекс I» состоит из 192 листов 1490—1499 годов написания, содержащих изображения различных механизмов и изложения теории механики. Хотя работа и посвящена механике, в ней есть заметки по астрономии и по оптике.
«Мадридский кодекс II» был создан Леонардо в 1503—1505 гг. и состоит из 158 листов. Он собрал исследования в области геометрии, такие, например, как «квадратуры круга». Кроме этого, в нём содержатся работы по перспективе и оптике. В книге можно найти эскизы морских и топографических карт, рассматриваются проблемы военной техники и архитектуры. Самое интересное в этом кодексе — неосуществлённый проект изменения русла реки Арно, эскизы фрески «Битва при Ангиари» и конного памятника Франческо Сфорца.

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Folger, K. , and Capecchi, M. R. 11986). Cell 44,419-428. , and Porteous, D. J. (1986). Trends Genet. 2, 4-5. , and Beato, M. Nature (London)313, 706-709. Voss, S. , and Gruss, P. (1986). Trends Biochern. Sci. 11, 287-289. Waters, B. , and Rossant, J. J . Ernbryol. Exp. Morphol. 98, 99-110. , Graham, C. , and Walsh, F. S. J . Neuroimmunol. 11, 67-86. Widen, S. , and Papaconstantinou, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. A. 83, 81968200. Wilkie, T. , Brinster, R. , and Palmiter, R. D. Deu. Biol. 118, 9-18.

And Leder, P. Nature (London) 318,36-40. chatten INTEGRATED MICROSCOPY RESOUR( k I I )I{HIOblP Ill( AL Rh%AR( 13 ZOOLOGY RESEARCH BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN MADISON WISCONSIN 53706 I. Introduction Fertilization bridges the discontinuity in generations and is considered successful if one, and only one, sperm nucleus unites with the egg nucleus within a n activated egg cytoplasm. In addition the fertilized egg must also be primed to prepare for its next challenges: the cell divisions leading to embryogenesis.

7B, over a dozen cytoplasmic foci derived from the oocyte serve as the centers of small asters. During pronuclear development, these microtubule-containing asters increase in size as the cytoplasm becomes filled with a microtubule matrix. The pronuclei are embedded within this matrix, and by a process involving both assembly and disassembly the male and female pronuclei are moved into apposition a t the cell center. Time-lapse studies demonstrate that the pronuclei move in a seemingly random jostling fashion to reach the egg center, and they do not follow particular paths a t specific times as in other systems.

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Códices Madrid I by Leonardo da Vinci


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