By Mary F. Ehrlander

ISBN-10: 1593320264

ISBN-13: 9781593320263

ISBN-10: 1931202451

ISBN-13: 9781931202459

After the excellent Court's choice, Brown v. Board of schooling (1954), segregated faculties finally spoke back to court docket orders to desegregate; but, within the Nineteen Nineties racial isolation remained, and standardized checks published an success hole among minority and white scholars. Case experiences in Wilmington (Delaware), Prince George's County (Maryland), San Diego, Cleveland, and in different places and nationwide stories at the fulfillment hole mirror the judicial system's lack of ability to impression the reform predicted in Brown. Judicial motion spurred public acceptance of the incompatibility among state-sponsored segregation and justice and equality, yet merely grassroots political strain can produce equitable, fine quality public tuition structures.

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Buchanan, 379 F. Supp. 1218, 1221-1224 (D. Del 1974). Evans v. Buchanan, 393 F. Supp. Del. 1975) (Layton dissenting). 27 Brief of Intervening Defendants, Evans v. Del. 27 Nov. 1974) (No. 18116-1822). 26 The Case of Wilmington, Delaware 47 city public housing policies, as factors contributing to the concentration of minorities in parts of Wilmington and their virtual absence from its suburbs. Through the early 1970s, housing authorities had built low-income housing projects, whose tenants were overwhelmingly minorities, almost exclusively within Wilmington, rather than dispersing them throughout the suburbs.

29 30 Equal Educational Opportunity: Brown’s Elusive Mandate However, in 1965, circumstances combined to provide an atmosphere in Washington highly receptive to the federal government’s entry into the funding of public education. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, prohibited the provision of federal funds to segregated schools, eliminating that reservation. The sweeping Democratic victories in the 1964 elections brought to Washington many liberals who generally favored federal aid to education, and public support for President Johnson’s Great Society programs provided the incentive to find a compromise regarding aid to private schools.

Thus, the act precluded the merger of Wilmington with any other school districts, which would have fostered desegregation through intra-district means. 13 Sponsors of the act said that it was intended to consolidate small, rural districts with too few students to operate a high school. Clarice Heckert, chair of the House Education Committee explained, “We took it for granted that Delaware’s schools were integrated, and that we were trying only to improve the quality of education . . in the poorer, smaller districts, most of them rural”14 Regardless of intent, the act dramatically impacted the racial composition of Wilmington schools, because it circumscribed the predominantly black school system in a way that eliminated the possibility of integration with adjacent predominantly white areas.

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Equal Educational Opportunity: Brown's Elusive Mandate (Law and Society (New York, N.Y.).) by Mary F. Ehrlander

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